The Milk MythBusters!
Milk should be drunk every day.
True. Milk and milk products should be included in the daily diet because otherwise it is difficult to meet the recommended daily intake standards, in particular for calcium and B2 vitamin. Pursuant with the healthy eating principles, both a child and an adult should drink 2 glasses of milk or the same amount of yogurt or kefir and eat 1-2 slices of cheese every day. Calcium contained in milk plays the key role in the bone-building process and therefore should be included in the diet throughout the entire life. It is particularity important for children and youths as well as persons over 50 years of age.
Skimmed milk has no nutrition values.
Myth. Although the content of A, D and E vitamins in skimmed milk is reduced, skimmed milk still provides the same amount of protein, calcium and B vitamins as full-fat milk. Skimmed milk is good for those who want to reduce the intake of animal fats; in particular the saturated fatty acids.
Milk is an excellent source of calcium.
True. Almost 70% of calcium in a diet comes from milk and milk products, only approx. 16% from green vegetables and dried fruit and 6-7% from mineral water. The presence of easily digestible calcium in milk is beneficial for normal development of the skeletal system and many metabolic processes of all the body cells e.g. the muscle cells or the nerve cells. Because of this, it is not an exaggeration to say that while proteins, fats and vitamins present in milk can be obtained from other food products, it is very hard to substitute calcium contained in milk.
Cow milk is fattening.
Myth. The latest researches show that milk products can play a very important role in weight control. When included in a slimming diet, they help to reduce the weight, both of the whole body and the adipose tissue, better than, for example calcium supplements or a diet poor in milk products.
The organism of many people does not digest milk..
True. In the majority of European countries, lactose intolerance occurs in 5% of white people population. The percentage considerably increases in other ethnic groups. In Poland, lactose intolerance is experienced by 1.5% of infants and children and 20-25% of adult people. People suffering from lactose intolerance should give up milk and cream but can still eat milk products like yogurts, buttermilk or kefir.
UHT processing destroys all nutritional substances contained in milk.
Myth. The UHT (Ultra-High Temperature) process simply consists in speedy heating up of milk up to the temperature of 140˚C and equally speedy cooling down to 20˚C. The process destroys germs, leaving all the necessary nutritional milk substances.
Milk prevents osteoporosis.
True. Drinking milk increases one’s chance to avoid not only osteoporosis but also colon cancer and hypertension. Milk constitutes an important source of highly digestible and nutritional proteins having an exemplary qualitative and quantitative composition of exogenous and endogenous amino acids. Also other nutrients decide about its nutritional value, such as: highly digestible calcium, B-group vitamins and soluble vitamins: A, D and E. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) which acts against cancer is also one of the most important substances contained in milk.
Milk whitens teeth.
Myth. Unfortunately, one cannot whiten one’s teeth by drinking milk only. But milk contains a large amount of highly digestible calcium which strengthens bones, teeth, hair and nails. Regular drinking of milk will also help to prevent tooth decay and cavities.
Milk moisturises skin.
True. Casein contained in milk has moisturizing qualities while proteins strengthen the epidermis and have firming properties. Milk also neutralises free radicals, delaying the skin ageing processes.
Milk is good for heartburn.
True. Milk is a drink which, thanks to its properties, has a neutralising effect on acids. Therefore one glass of milk can relieve heartburn and other symptoms of esophagitis. Milk also helps in certain stomach problems.
- The most important and highly digestible, by human organisms, nutritional substances contained in milk include:
- Protein – of a very high biological value;
- Calcium – highly digestible;
- Riboflavin – takes part in the oxidation and reduction processes;
- A and D vitamins – important for the development and growth of the organism;
- CLA – prevents cancer and arteriosclerosis;
- Potassium, phosphorus, magnesium – mineral components.
- The Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) of calcium for adults (800g) can be supplied by drinking: 3 glasses of milk, eating 17 portions of cottage cheese (0.8 kg), 5 portions of rennet cheese (100g).
- The Recommended Daily Allowance of B2 vitamin for adults (1.6 – 2.4 mg) can be supplied by drinking: 3.5 glasses of milk, 7 portions of cottage cheese (0.3 kg), 19 portions of rennet cheese (0.4 kg).
- Milk and its products are of a great importance in the prevention of osteoporosis (higher probability of fractures). Insufficient intake of calcium and D vitamin throughout the entire life are mentioned among the food-related risk factors of osteoporosis.
- The bone mineralisation process ends when a person is about 30, the accumulated calcium is used as a reserve throughout the rest of life and, consequently, the amount of the element is naturally reduced, at first slowly (about 1% a year) and then quicker and quicker.
- The fermented milk type products eliminate numerous toxic microorganisms from the alimentary tract and are beneficial to human health.
- According to the National Food and Nutrition Institute, to cover the daily demand for calcium, pregnant and breastfeeding women should drink 5-6 glasses of milk while elderly people 3 glasses of milk (see the below Table). One should however remember that when other dairy products are eaten (like cheese, kefir or yogurt), one can drink less milk. Therefore it is recommended to drink at least 3 full glasses of milk every day or the same amount of kefir and yogurt and to eat 1-2 slices of cheese. According to the National Food and Nutrition Institute, if milk were the only one source of calcium, the daily intake of milk to cover the demand for calcium should be as follows:
- Groups of people (gender and age) and daily milk intake
- Children 1-3 years old - 850 ml (3,4 glass)
- Children 4-6 years old - 900 ml (3,6 glass)
- Children 7-12 years old - 950 ml (3,8 glass)
- Male youths 13-20 years old - 1150 ml (4,6 glass)
- Female youths 13-20 years old - 1100 ml (4,4 glass)
- Men 21-64 years old - 950 ml (3,8 glass)
- Women 21-59 years old - 900 ml (3,6 glass)
- The elderly - 800 ml (3,2 glass)
- Pregnant women - 1350 ml (5,4 glass)
- Breastfeeding women - 1500 ml (6 glass)
- Źródło: Instytut Żywności i Żywienia
- Nutritionists recommend the consumption of milk because it has an exceptionally unique composition and dietary virtues. Milk provides not only the main nutrients for the human body but also quite large amounts of calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, to list just the most important. Milk also satisfies our demand for vitamins being, above all, a secretion rich in B-group vitamins, in particular in riboflavin. It is worth mentioning that milk and milk products are the best source of calcium. And, as we well know, calcium helps us to ward off bone diseases.
- Proteins contained in milk have the optimal proportion of amino acids and consequently present the appropriately high biological value. To be precise: they are the substances that are used to produce protein nutrients. Moreover, buttermilk protein is recommended as a training supplement. The milk proteins are characterised by the fast release of amino acids and the express assimilation from the digestive track. It is also recommended to take casein because it slowly releases amino acids to the vascular system, efficiently supporting us in the fight with night catabolism. Casein ensures seven hours of acid inflow from the digestive track to the blood in the human body.
- Quite often bodybuilders limit the consumption of milk because of lactose, which is however quite unnecessary. The researches demonstrate a positive effect of drinking milk and supplementing diet with calcium on the efficiency of slimming. In accordance with preliminary reports, the right portion of calcium-rich milk products supports the reduction of the adipose tissue, at the same time preventing the loss of muscle. Nutritionists all over the world recommend the sportsmen to drink 1 litre of milk every day. While all those who are a bit less physically active are recommended to drink about 3 glasses a day. Persons with low digestibility of milk are recommended to eat milk products only or drink milk with reduced lactose content, also available on the market.
From the history of the dairy industry
- The Teutonic wild ox was an ancestor of domestic bovine, which was domesticated approx. 6.5 thousand years B.C. (the last Teutonic wild ox was killed in Poland in 1627).
- The milk products (butter, cheeses, and fermented drinks) were already produced in the Stone Age – approx. 6 thousand years B.C.
- 2 thousand years B.C. milk and milk products became more and more popular on the area of Poland (hard cheeses from the XV century).
- The first milking unit was invented in Egypt in 380 year B.C. - pieces of wheat stem were placed in cows’ teats.
- In the XV century the smoked ewe’s milk cheese was started to be produced in the Tatra Mountains.
- In Poland the production of cream cheese was started in 1971, cottage cheese in 1991.
- The first Polish dairy cooperative was established in 1882 in Pawłówek near Buk.
- Milk in carton packaging was first launched to the market in the USA in 1906.
- 1907 - yogurt was introduced on the market in Germany.
- 1914 - aluminium bottle caps were introduced on milk bottles in Sweden.
- In Poland the production of milk powder began in 1935.
- 1940 - a continuous butter production technology was developed in Germany.
- 1949 - the so called “Milk Bars” were opened in cities.
- Every year the Cooperative processes so much milk that it could be used to fill up a 3m deep, 20m wide and 2.5 km long pool.
- The so called Biskupianka (a woman figure in a regional dress) was the first trademark.
- In 2004 the 500th million tin with condensed milk was produced.
- Has Queen Elisabeth eaten the Gostyńskie Butter? Yes! – it was supplied to the British Royal Court in the 1950s.
- Which Pope ate the Gostyńskie Butter? ... Jan XXIII
- Have the gostyńskie products been tasted by the President of the Republic of Poland? ... Yes – by Ignacy Mościcki the President of the II Republic of Poland and Aleksander Kwaśniewski, the President of the III Republic of Poland.
- In 1989 there were approx. 2 million of fudges manufactured in the Cooperative.
- In the years 1936-1937 the Gostyńskie Butter was supplied to Lisbon, London, Paris, Vienna, Brno, Brussels, Prague and Milano.
- Was the Cooperative ever visited by a China representative? ... Yes – in 1937 the Cooperative was visited by a China government representative, Mr. Chang-Fu-Lieng.
- What does the Cooperative have in common with submarines? ... In the beginning of the 1980s the unsweetened and sweetened condensed milk was supplied to the Submarine Division Unit.
- ow many persons acted as the Cooperative CEO since 1889? ...8